Received: August 31, 2019; Accepted: September 15, 2019; Published: September 18, 2019.
The study penalty to polluter Act: A sustainable solution to reduce extreme pollution has been carried out after the successful and effective presentation of two research ‘Fine Kathmandu Act: A sustainable solution to reduce extreme pollution’ in Kathmandu, Nepal and ‘Fine Delhi Act: A sustainable solution to reduce extreme pollution’ in New Delhi, India respectively in 2016 and 2017 AD. Those studies propose easiest, scientific and effective solution to reduce the pollution of both cities completely and to cure the effect of extreme pollution. Way is charging the polluter of cities by cash and distribution of collected cash making fund to affected innocent people (who are not responsible for pollution) directly through making an effective Bill (Act). By reviewing the history of injustice of two cities to their surrounding innocent habitants, study has proposed to develop ‘Penalty to Polluter Act’. Study has discussed who should be punished, penalty areas, affected areas by the pollution, for whom should be reimbursed and how to go ahead. through descriptive analytical method and textual analysis, study have resulted that, the only one justice to the innocent people who are neither in city nor polluter is punishing the real polluter (like users and producers of products and service of Multi-national companies, National companies, local companies and etc.) and their mismanaged sophisticated lifestyle. Study suggests an effective method to solve the problem of pollution to all other cities.
The action of polluting especially by environmental contamination with man-made waste is pollution . Polluters are those materials which are responsible for the decrease of quality of air, water, soil, noise and other natural environment. Polluter is a subject which is responsible for the pollution. Subject could be people, company/organization, country, Industry/factory and any another subject. The study describes the polluter by separating into three types as follows;
Product polluters: These are all polluters who produce first hand goods/ products and during the production they release waste materials (Pollutants) which makes environment polluted. It includes machines or engines that produce temperature increasing gases like carbon monoxide, wooden materials like furniture, household materials, Construction materials, packaged food products, chemicals used in laboratories, explosive materials used in military exercise, radioactive materials and all other usable products for the need of humankind.
Both of these pollution use to occur through below mentioned types of business institutions:
• Multinational companies and their products or services.
• National companies and their products or services.
• Local companies and their products or services.
Service polluters: these are all polluters relating to the service business and organizations that buy and use the product of other companies, modify them and serve them to their clients or guests. These are Hospitals, Hotels restaurants, Resorts, transportation companies, Airlines, Airports, & etc. Service polluters are also considered as the product polluters while they use raw materials to modify the first hand product. They may be charitable and as well as profit oriented.
Individual polluter: Personal polluters are individuals and family who produce waste materials from their daily life. The pollutants produced from houses and individuals are also responsible to decrease the quality of nature. Due to the attraction towards sophisticated life style among villagers, mismanaged or hap hazarded development in developing nation, hap hazarded management of waste materials unawareness about pollution and its effects, due to lack of re-cycle and etc, are playing a crucial role to increase pollution.
Effect of pollution in various areas
Pollution affects the quality of life. Air and water pollution are responsible for the allergies, irritation on eye nose and throat. Most of the diseases are due to the pollution. Heart attack, asthma attack and other breathing problems, various types of cancers and serious types of long term diseases are the effect of water, soil and air pollution. Polluted light rays or radioactive pollution cause cancer and skin problems. Due to the pollution and global warming, many of the spaces of animals are disappearing. Number of Endangered animals like, red panda, some species of crocodiles, Cougar, Bald eagle, Polar Bear, Snow leopard and etc are decreasing day by day. Temperature rise, deforestation, polluted water and etc are responsible to reduce the numbers of endangered animals. Overall, pollution is decreasing the quality of life of human and other animal day by day .
Greenhouse gases are responsible for the growth of global temperature and climate change. Due to the increase in global temperature ice of Himalayas and Antarctica are melting in record breaking rate. Sea level is increasing day by day. Oceans are being more turbulent and Heat waves destroying the life of birds and animals. Temperature of ocean is also rising which affects the marine life. Due to the air pollution, world is facing the serious problem of climate change. Weather is being irregular. Humankind is suffering from extreme heat and extreme rain. The rate of devastation is also increasing which could push whole humankind into extinction [3,4].
The infertile and chemical mixed soil could not support to the plant life. Crops and production is decreasing which could lead malnourishment in local communities. Organic production is being difficult. Extreme use of pesticides for the crops reduces the soil quality and also reduces the production. Contaminated soil could not support herbs and plants. Deforestation is another important factor for the climate change and global warming. Toxic soil is responsible for the skin allergies and illness. Salinization of soil could not support the life of herbs and plants, which leads reduction of oxygen level. The area of jungle is also decreasing, which loses the lives of many spaces and which is responsible for the misbalance in ecosystem and weather. Water and radioactive pollution is affecting the marine ecosystem and Soil contamination is affecting the terrestrial ecosystem [2-5]. There are other many areas of pollution that have affected the purity of earth in various ways.
Who should be punished?
All the polluters above discussed are supposed for penalty. The multinational companies / organizations should be charged by cash for collecting, clearing and managing the waste from their product and services by respective countries committee. The national companies and organizations are also supposed for the penalty in similar ways. In this case all government and non government companies come into same criteria. All government companies that are aimed to product and service business and service should be charged according to the activities. It includes hospitals, hotels, schools and colleges, airports and airlines, military institution and equipment workers, construction companies, research projects, oil companies, radioactive energy producer, and etc. All of bodies should be punished according to their responsibility to pollution. Less responsible less penalty and more responsible more penalty. But, in case of Individual polluter, they are supposed for penalty according to their activities. The activities are listed below as:
- To dig underground water.
- To use pesticides and other activities that increases the salination of the soil or reduces purity of soil.
- To burn plastics materials, woods, fuel like oil and lubrications and etc.
- To cut trees and to whom promote deforestation.
- To the people who mix sewerage to the river, lakes and sea without filtration.
- To people who uses refrigerators, motor vehicles and many other machines who produces green house gases.
- To the people who throw their waste material for the management to the government body.
- And all other activities of people that is believed to be responsible for the pollution.
Penalty to polluter Act
The Study suggests governments should make an effective and non-biasing Law (Act) to charge (punish) the polluters like above mentioned. This act should be regulated by a special commission that specially works for punishing the polluters, collecting the cash, develop plans and missions, distribution of collected cash to the affected people as compensation. This compensation is for regular health treatment of pollution affected people, for the compensation of reduced production of herbs, crops and other products from farming. Thus, that fund is also responsible for the treatment of the pollution and responsible for the reduction of pollution by making plans and supporting related agencies. The commission is supposed to advise respective government for the sustainable and environment friendly development of nation. The special commission shouldn’t lead by government officials or other non-related bodies. If government leads, there may be the chance of political intervention and biasing. It should lead by the nomination from pollution affected people like the residents of suburb and villages, Himalayas and from where people are less responsible for pollution but bearing more effect . For example, a farmer of Devichour (50 km south of capital city Kathmandu) is very less responsible for the pollution but he is using contaminated water of Bagmati River for irrigation. The contaminated water reduces his crop production. So, such types of affected people should lead the commission and also consider high priority for the reimbursement. Study also suggests regulation of collected cash should conduct only by commission, not by government for any other developmental projects or for budget [7-11].
By the application of penalty to polluter act, all of the bodies who are affected by pollution will be beneficiary according to the level of effect i.e., more effect more compensation and less effect less compensation. By the compensation, people of lower economic class will also be able to treat their health. People who are living into cities will be able to maintain their health. The compensation will help the farmers by improving reduced production of crops and can spend to treat the soil contamination. By the compensation, commission could play vital role for the sustainable solution to the pollution. It could plan for the reduction of soil and water contamination, deforestation stopping and maintaining the underground water level. Penalty to industries will reduce the production of chemicals and greenhouse gases and other air pollutants. Charging the military activities and research activities helps to reduce the radioactive pollution and noise pollution also. Reducing the water contamination will help to regulate marine ecosystem regularly. Low air pollution reduces the health effect to human and other animals and also helps to maintain the stable weather. If air pollution is reduced, the problem of global warming and increasing sea level could be stop. Charging individuals and family will limits the production if waste materials from houses and service business with motivation to re-cycle. In short, the act will help to cure the nature and its effect in sustainable way .
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