Nano- Technology Used to Produce Housing & Furniture from Waste

Brian Sulaiman1,2*

1 CEO, Dena Family of Companies, United Kingdom

2 PhD, BSc, PGD MAC, M. Auslmm, Leeds University, United Kingdom

*Corresponding Author: Dr. Brian Sulaiman, CEO, Dena Family of Companies, PhD, BSc, PGD MAC, M. Auslmm, Leeds University, United Kingdom, Tel: + 44 (0)1226 388805; Fax: + 44 (0)1226 388805;

Citation: Brian Sulaiman Dr (2022) Nano- Technology Used to Produce Housing & Furniture from Waste. SciEnvironm 5: 154.

Received: October 07, 2022; Accepted: October 13, 2022; Published: October 17, 2022.

Copyright: © 2022 Brian Sulaiman, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


A Nano-Technology Additive has been developed which acts as a bridging bond between the waste polar plastics of poly-vinyl chloride and the waste rubber recovered from end-of life tyres. The Additive is a polymer in which is active in the nanoscale and is able to devulcanize the surface of the rubber particles at a temperature between 100 → 120?C at a pressure of up to 200 bar. This condition allows the Nano Additive to link the poly-vinyl chloride with the rubber to create in a specially built reaction chamber to give a composite which can be shaped by moulding. The final processing temperature can reach up to 200?C. The newly formed composite has opposite physical and chemical properties to the original rubber and plastic, and resists fire and all types of chemicals plus other properties.

This composite can be used to make many different finished products depending on the mould being used, including sheet, flooring, roofing posts, windows, doors, pipes and furniture etc.

There are many variations on the formula of the Nano Additive which determines the type and characteristics of the product produced to be used in construction or in furniture to replace wood.

The process as a whole is a Green Process and is considered to be carbon negative as the only by-product is that during cooling a small amount of steam is produced which can be converted to clean water.


Dena’s Companies were established many years ago by Dr Brian Sulaiman, PhD, BSc, PGD MAC, M.Auslmm, (Leeds University UK). Dr Sulaiman founded his companies to exploit the field of Advanced Nanotechnology. He utilises his patented Reactor that modifies particles to achieve dramatic improvements in productivity, quality and profitability with a diverse range of applications from pharmaceuticals to inks.

More recently working in the eco-products arena with the conversion of waste tyres and waste plastic into high value, durable construction products. The environmental impacts of this development are serious and pave the way for a substantial opportunity for the world to adopt Green environmentally friendly processes that reduce dependence on natural wood and thereby save the forests utilizing harmful wastes, as follows: -

• Re-cycling of end-of-life tyres and waste plastic that are impacting landfill sites and are a worldwide environmental hazard.

• Reduces reliance on wood that is now superseded by the composite material for thousands of applications as mentioned previously.

• Provides the marketplace with an alternative to wood that is a fraction of the cost, water-resistant, impervious to chemicals, will not rot or decay, is stronger and harder and incredibly, is 100% recyclable.


An End-of-Life (EOL) tyre recycling technology has been developed that can be used to make a range of high value and durable construction eco-products whilst creating zero emissions and zero waste. As waste tyres are available worldwide for a fraction of price compared to virgin rubber, the raw material cost is negative and there are also steel and fibres that can be reclaimed and sold off to provide an additional income. Whilst tyre crumbing is established, the material forming technology is completely new and has no competitors as it is proprietary and covered by several International Patents. A unique process is used to produce these materials from micronised waste rubber, waste plastic and a specially developed Nano Additive. The resulting material has an almost endless range of final products, all of which are infinitely recyclable using the same processes that created them in the first place. These range from super-strength and durable ‘Wood Replacement Products’ to Special Porous Irrigation Pipes. (Figure 1)

Figure 1: Key Tyre Facts.


• The demand for wood products is causing deforestation and severely damaging precious rainforests, killing thousands of species and ecosystems globally. Furthermore, illegal logging is costing US$10 Billion per annum and destroying lives.

  • In terms of atmospheric impact, 1 tonne of living trees produces 1 tonne of oxygen per annum and consumes over 1.5 tonnes of CO2.
  • This is Nature’s ‘antidote’ to excessive CO2, and it is essential that we preserve it and by switching to replacement wood, we can achieve it.
  • According to the WBCSD (World Business Council for Sustainable Development), a total of 1 billion end-of-life (EOL) tyres are generate globally every year
  • There are approximately 4 billion EOL tyres in landfill and stockpiles globally and as they do not decompose, they can be a fire risk affecting the air with toxic fumes as well as a breeding area for mosquito’s
  • Some landfill tyre-fires have been burning for years

There are fewer places to dump EOL tyres and most developed Countries are struggling to find viable alternatives to landfill which is now illegal in most regions. In recent years, an increasing number of tyre crumbing plants have opened, only to find that the market is saturated with an over-supply of shredded and crumbed rubber with nowhere to go. As a result, thousands of such businesses have been stockpiling these tyres for the Gate Fee alone and in many cases have been shut down by the EPA (Environmental Protection Agencies).

The EU Landfill Directive banned dumping of whole tyres from landfills in 2003. By 2006, tyres in any shape or form were banned from landfills in EU Member States. In order for the EU Landfill Directive to be implemented in a timely manner, new disposal routes for scrap tyres need to be developed with great urgency in all EU Member States.

Main Technology & Process

The process starts by taking the crumb rubber and waste plastic and processing down into a powder form, at minus 500 microns in size, to maximize the surface reaction area. These materials are blended with the selected Nano Additive for the selected finished product. The blended materials together with any required pigment is reacted on by the thermal intensification process at a temperature between 100 → 120?C under pressure (above 50 bar). This allows part of the Nano Additive polymer to react with the surface of the rubber allowing re-bonding to a maximum depth of 500 nanometers, the other part of the Nano Additive polymer bonds with the poly-vinyl chloride to form a gel/paste composite. In the meantime, the pressure and temperature in the processing chamber are increased until the full surface reaction is completed, and homogeneity achieved.

The pressure is increased up to 200 bar or as required, maintaining a processing temperature up to 200?C or below as required, this gives the processing conditions for the composite to be injected or extruded through a mould to form the finished product. (Figure 2)

As a result, the finished products can be used as components to build Affordable Housing, and as exterior walls, interior walls, flooring, foundations, structural supports, windows, doors and roofing etc. By changing the formula of the Nano- Additive it is also possible to produce wood replacement components for use in furniture construction. 

Figure 2: Waste plastic and processing

The advantages of these products are that they are 100% water resistant (water will not penetrate or be absorbed) compared with wood, 100% Insect proof, Fire Resistant, Ultra Violet resistant, Stronger and more durable than WPC, will not absorb most petrochemical products, resistant to salts of all types, designed to be reusable hundreds of times (finished products can be recycled several times to manufacture new products), ideal for weather insulation (heat, sun radiation), good sound insulation, ideal in humid areas, several lengths available - Designed in standard sizes or as specially requested sizes (subject to quantity), easy to clean, impact proof, can be drilled, nailed, and screwed – even holds nails and screws better than wood, supports adhesive use, paint and coatings are not needed on our products - however, if wanted can be applied, available in various colors and shapes, softness or hardness of the end-product is easily modified by changing formulations to suit the product application.

The process as a whole is a Green Process and is considered to be carbon negative as the only by-product is that during cooling a small amount of steam is produced which can be converted to clean water.

The technology is based on the principles of Nanotechnology, which is the technology of the future. Utilizing nanotechnology, the waste rubber material from tyres and similar materials can be converted into useful and valuable wood replacement products and different construction eco-products. These products perform and look just like wood and carry all the good attributes of wood but eliminate the negative side of wood, like effects from weather, insects, and water. Our finished products are green and environmentally friendly.

This is a new technology and is a proprietary process with the know-how solely being used by Dena, who utilize this nanotechnology process in a green environmentally manner, to help the world. Compared with other construction materials which increase pollution in the environment the Wood Replacement Products so produced reduce the impact of plastics and rubber, plus promotes recycling without increasing pollution.

Figure 3: Affordable Homes

Figure 4: Residential homes.

Figure 5: Emergency Accommodation.

Figure 6: Furniture.



Conclusion & Outcome

The production process is very efficient and due to its efficiency, there is no waste during production. For example, if you put 1 ton of raw material in the machine, the machine will produce similar quantity of finished product. Efficiency of this machine is 99% and therefore there are no wastes and no by-products. Below are how some of the applications for finished products produced by this green technology.

The Affordable Homes in modular form which can be mobilised quickly as and when required. It is important that such accommodation can be mobilised quickly to minimise disruption and to prevent a delay in services. Our aim is to establish holding centres at strategic points around the world to enable a quick response capable of reacting promptly to emergency situations anywhere in the world. It is important to meet the urgent need for housing during serious infectious disease outbreaks, as well as after natural disasters such as earthquake, flood, storm etc. quickly. We can deliver high quality accommodation for use as Shelter Housing Units, Isolation Units and to replace buildings that are damaged by earthquake, flood, fire, explosion, or extreme weather conditions within days or even hours.

Our Affordable Homes / Shelter Housing Units / Isolation / Emergency Accommodation Units are safe, versatile, and weatherproof, providing protection against wind, water and vermin.

Thanks to their simple design and durability these Affordable Homes / Shelter Housing/ Isolation / Emergency Accommodation Units can serve a multitude of functions from isolation and emergency accommodation units to temporary hospitals and kitchens. The Shelter Housing / Isolation / Emergency Accommodation Units are designed and built-in modular form, making them easy to transport and erect by semi-skilled personnel, thereby making them the ideal solution for infectious diseases, natural disasters including fires, floods, earthquakes, and cyclones, which often strike unexpectedly and require an immediate response.


  1. Brian Sulaiman Dr (2022) Nano- Technology Used to Produce Housing & Furniture from Waste. SciEnvironm 5: 154.