Geophysical Exploration of Rare Gas in Rocks of Vindhyan Super Group Around Sagar, South Ganga Basin, Bundelkhand Region M.P. India

Arun K Shandilya1*, Anurag Shandilya2, Anupam Shandilya3, Yadav Kumar Mawle4

1Deptt of Applied Geology, Dr.H.S.G.University SAGAR, Madhya Pradesh, India.

2Asstt. Manager K7 Computing Co Chennai, India.

3Engineer, Cognizant soft. Solution, Pune, India.

4Asso.Prof. Deptt of Geology, SGB University Amravati, India.

*Corresponding Author: Arun K Shandilya, Deptt of Applied Geology, Dr.H.S.G.University SAGAR, Madhya Pradesh, India,Tel: 09977576665; Fax: 09977576665;

Citation: Arun K Shandilya, Anurag Shandilya, Anupam Shandilya, Yadav Kumar Mawle (2019) Geophysical Exploration of Rare Gas in Rocks of Vindhyan Super Group Around Sagar, South Ganga Basin, Bundelkhand Region M.P. India. SciEnvironm 2: 142.

Copyright: © 2019 Arun K Shandilya, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Received: August 03, 2019; Accepted: August 23, 2019; Published: August 27, 2019.


Studies on the geophysical exploration of the Helium gas in the rocks of the Vindhyan Super Group around Sagar, South Ganga Basin, Bundel khand region, M.P. is carried out in the detail with joint collaboration of Deptt. of Applied Geology and ONGC Energy Centre, Ahmadabad. As Author has already reported the Discovery og Helium has leakages through more than 50 tube wells/e wells excavated in agriculture fields various Villages in Sagar Distt. The geochemical analysis of the soil, gas and water indicates remarkable amount of Helium gas in these tube wells, containing about 0.45 to 0.735 and methane varying from 72 % to 99%. These investigations were done in the long research work (more than 25 years) dedication carried out in this area and research finding published in the Journal of National and International repute, which has attracted the officers/ Scientists of ONGC, Dehradun, CGWB, Faridabad, Atomic Mineral Directorate Hyderabad and Bhabha Atomic Research Centre Mumbai.

The Result of the stable isotopic analysis of Ethane gas in these samples δ C13 value are ranging from -24.9 per mill w.r.t. PDB and -26.9 per mill w.r.t. PDB and the Methane gas are ranging from Isotopic Values -54.0- per mill w.r.t. PDB to -61.5 per mill w.r.t. PDB are indicative that this gas is of thermogenic origin, which must have been formed at very high temperature & pressure condition in the deeper horizon of the great Vindhyan sedimentary basin of late Proterozoic (>500m.y.) period. A reporting of leakages of above mentioned gas from 50 tubewells in the inliers of Vindhyan rocks and even in the Deccan trap rocks ensures that this area must be having a big gas reservoir within Vindhayn rocks around Sagar- Distt. in M.P.

The ONGC energy Centre Ahmadabad has started the detail collaborative geophysical work on the drilling exploration upto the depth of 600 m has been carried out and to be carried out in various location from where the leakages of has been earlier reported earlier. In these 600 m deep drill holes detail geophysical logging including the gama ray logging and Neutron logging, lithological and structural logging will be carried out to know the probable gas reserve and at what depth the, we can get the gas for the exploration and utilization of these ases for industrial purpose and other uses etc.

The detail geophysical studies will be very much helpful in the gas reserve calculation and the depth of the gas pockes in the South Ganga Basin in Bundelkhand region in M.P.


Vindhyan Rocks, Petroleum Gas, Helium, Proterozoic, Stable Isotopic, Geochemically, Leakages, Thermogenic


The present studies on the discovery of leakages of rare gas Helium along with petroleum gases in the hydrocarbon rich zone has been done in the samples of soil, water and gas collected from the 50 tubewells located in the various villages in the Garhakota, Khurai, Banda and Rahatgarh, Sagar tahsils of Sagar and Jabera, Singrampur, Konda, Patharia tahsils of Damoh Districts in the South Ganga basin, Bundelkhand region in the Upper Rewa rocks of Vindhyan Super Group in M.P.

The first-time leakage of petroleum gas was reported in 1980 from the Meerkheri village located on the Sagar to Vidisha road, at about 15 km from the Rahatgarh town. In 1993, in another tube well at Rahatgarh the leakages was reported by the author.

The leakages of Hydrocarbon gas and helium gas has been discovered in Piparia-Bhutoli are near Chinnoaa in Garhakota Tahsil, Rahatgarh, Meerkheri, Hurrai in Sagar District, and Batiyagarh and Mahalwara, Sukha, Jabera, Konda, and Singrampur villages in Damoh District, about 140Km.X 20 Km area. the borewell varying in depth from 340'-400' ft. on the II order stream of the Sonar river, which are located in the southern catchments area of the Ganga river system. The borewell owners contacted to the author regarding burning one-meter high flame. The author has analyzed the gas and found that this gas in burning in blue colour flame and reported the matter in the local newspaper Dainik Bhaskar and the ONGC, Petroleum Minister, Govt. of India and. Chief Minister, The Governor, Govt of M.P Bhopal. After confirmation of the gas the owner has started using this gas for his domestic purposes, i.e. for cooking the meals and he has tried to filled the LPG gas cylinders with this gas. Using the locally available nosal, plastic tube and valve etc.

In 1993 also author has discovered the occurrence of natural Petroleum gas in the Borewell of Sri Tiwari in Rahatgarh who is continuously using this gas for his daba/ hotel on way to Bhopal the state highway. In this well also after drying of the well has started pouring the air/ petroleum gas, which is in continuous using for the hotel chulha. Figure 1,2.

Figure 1: Sedimentary Basin of India

Figure 2


The present rare Helium gas and natural petroleum gas leakages has been discovered in the dried tube wells, located on the rocks of Sandstone, shale and limestone rocks of the Rewa and Bhander Group of the Vindhyan Super Group as the basement rocks. These petroliferous rocks are overlain by the Lameta bed in the western part of the Pipariya and Bhutoli area in Garhakota tahsil. On the western part of present area is overlain by the rocks of Upper Cretaceous Deccan Trap Basaltic flows, which are intercalated with intertrappean limestone.The area were the leakages of pertoleum gas has been discovered located on the alluvial soil cover.The Deccan Trap Basaltic rocks are exposed west of the Chinnoua village in Garhakota Tahsil .The dips of the sandstone and shales rocks are 10 - 15 degree toward SE. The topography is more or less flat with some low lying areas near the stream.

Western fringe of The Rahatgarh and Meerkheri areas are covered mostly by the Basaltic flows of Deccan Traps. except few inliers of the rocks of Rewa Group and Bhander Group of the Vindhyan Super Group. The Deccan Trap basalt rocks are mostly covered by the black soil. Table 1.

Table 1: The Generalised stratigraphic succession of South Ganga Basin, Around SAGAR M.P.





Alluvium soil

Black soil


Trap Basalt (with Intertrapean limestone)


Lameta Formation



Bhander ==== (Containing the Petroleum gas &   Helium gas)






Phosphastic Dolomite

Ferrugenous Shale

Ferrugenous Sandstone

Iron Formation / BHQ


Conglomerate bed.




Quartz reef intrussion

Pegmatitic intrussion

Ultramafic intrusive

Granite Intrussive rocks.

Granite Gneiss

Biotite Schist




Intrussive body

Dolomitic Marble


Ferrugenous Formation



(After Rajrajan 1978)

Geochemical Analysis: The samples were analysed in the geochemical laboratory of KDM IPE Kaulagarh Road, ONGC,Dahradun. Table 2.

Table 2: Geochemical Value of Natural Gas, Soil and Water.


Bore Well

Chemical Composition % (v/v)

Isotopic Values

(δ C13)










 0.34  1.6  24.87  0.93  72.14  0.03

- 61.5



 0.72  0.65  14.37  0.28  84.00  0.02

- 54.0




 0.30  1.6  25.02  0.96  75.00  0.03

- 61.5



 0.31  1.8  26.03  0.81  78.02  0.03

- 59.4



 0.30  1.9  23.06  0.83  79.04  0.03

- 59.4



 0.29  2.0  25.08  0.96  73.35  0.02

- 60.3


Semra Angad

 0.27  1.7 24.59  0.92  79.07  0.04

- 53.7



 0.33  1.8  23.07  0.89



- 6



 0.35  2.0  26.04  0.98  88.0  0.03

- 62.7



 0.36  2.0  26.09  0.89  90.00  0.04

- 60.06



 0.31  1.9


 0.94  84.0  0.03

- 62.8



 0.32  1.9  24.07  0.96  86.02  0.039

- 62.5



 0.35  2.0  20.53  0.39  89.00  0.03

- 55.4



 0.29  1.9  23.39  0.88  86.03  0.04

- 62.1



 0.36  2.0  24.49  0.89  90.36  0.04

- 63.3


Author has requested to the Director Exploration, KDM IPE, ONGC Dehradun, who has sent a team of Geologists on 8th May 2007 for the detailed investigation. Along with the team of ONGC and author, has visited the Piparia-Bhutoli and Rahatgarh and Meerkheri area and collected the samples of soil, water and gas. We have observed that the petroleum gas is coming out from the bore well of Sri Bhagwan Singh Yadav’s agriculture field. The pipe of the borewell was connected through the plastic pipe, which was giving the bubbling in the bucket of water. Then we have observed that this air cum gas coming out the bore well is burning in blue colour flame, we have tested in the burner also and the photograph has been taken. In the start the villagers were afraid of any disaster or calamities due to burning the gas in the field. Thanks god there was no houses or forest nearby the well site.

In the month Jan.2008 a letter has been written to the Dr. P.M. Tejale, Director General Geological Survey of India, Kolkatta and to the V.P. Dimri, Director, (Rtd) National Geophysical Research Institute, Hyderabad regarding the further investigation of the natural gas under the joint collaboration with this University. A team of scientists- from NGRI have visited various bore wells and collected the samples of soil, water and gas from different localities for the geo-chemical analysis and isotopic studies. The samples were collected from the following localities-Piparia, Bhutoli (lat: 23o47'59.2"N, long 79o05'29.6" E, Elevation 448m).

The tube wells (depth 400 feet) (lat: 23048'20" N, long: 79o50'20.7" E,elevation 450m). Rahatgarh (The leakage of petroleum gas is reported since 1993.) Meerkhedi: This tube well (lat: 23o45'56"N, Long:78o18'9.6"E, Elevation 440m). The area falls in the toposheet of India No. 55 I/5. This tube well is the eastern extremity of village meerkhedi, 13 km of Rahatgarh on way to Vidisha. Mahalwara, Bannad, Semra- Hilgan Patneshwar village, Semar Angad Parsoriya, Ghoghra, Batiyagarh, Khiria –Bineki, Batiyagarh,

The Oil and Natural Gas Commission Dehradun has concluded with, the seepaged gases of Pipariya Bhatoli and Rahatgarh are predominantly methane (72.14%-84 % in Pipariya Bhutoli and 99% in Tiwari Dhaba, Rahatgarh Bore well and are devoid of higher hydrocarbons. the hydrocarbon gases seem to have predominance of bacterial methane. The pressure of both the seepages is extremely low. As per the owners, the quantity of gas is diminishing day-by-day. The results this time of methane is concerned. Genetically the seepage gases from Pipariya Bhatoli and Rahatgarh seem to be different from thermogenic gases encountered in exploratory well jabera-1, drilled by ONGC in Distt. Damoh(M.P.).

In January 2008 in Bhutoli village further land owner bore the well up to 400 ft. deep there is huge quantity of natural gas has been reported to governmental agencies.In the Fab.2008 two villagers at Pipariya- Bhutoli have drilled two more tube wells upto the depth of 300- 350 feet about 600-700 m away from the earlier wells in the shales and sandstone rocks of Lower Bhander they could not got the ground water, but there is leakages of natural gas, which is also giving the blue flame.Another set of samples were analysed at NGRI, HYDERABAD.

The samples of petroleum gas, soil, water was also collected jointly by the scientists Dr. A.M. Dayal(Rtd), Dr. Ravi Srivastava, and Dr. D.J. Patil of NGRI Hyderabad along with the author on 4-5 May 2008.The detail geochemical and stable Isotopic studies of the natural petroleum gas and water sample has been done in the Laboratories of NGRI. The following are the finding- Table 3.

Table 3: Stable Isotopic Value of Natural Gas in Sagar.




δ C13




-43.6 per mil w.r.t. PDB

-24.6per mil w.r.t. PDB




-54.9 per mil w.r.t. PDB

-26.4 per mil w.r.t. PDB




-43.6per mil w.r.t. PDB

-24.6per mil w.r.t. PDB




-54.9 per mil w.r.t. PDB

-26.4 per mil w.r.t. PDB




- 44.7per mil w.r.t. PDB

-27.5 per mil w.r.t. PDB




-44.8 per mil w.r.t. PDB

-26.9 per mil w.r.t. PDB




-56.8 per mil w.r.t. PDB -29.8 per mil w.r.t. PDB




-44.6 per mil w.r.t. PDB

-26.3per mil w.r.t. PDB




-45.7 per mil w.r.t. PDB

-29.4per mil w.r.t. PDB




-58.4 per mil w.r.t. PDB

-28.3per mil w.r.t. PDB

The presence of the ethane gas in all Localities, and δ C13 value in the range of -24.9per mil. w.r.t. P.D.B. and - 29.8 per mil. w.r.t. P.D.B. indicate the thermogenic source of these gases. With these samples it will be possible to know the amount of Hydrocorbon and at what depth the reservoir is present depth of the4 reservoir. In this view further, another team of 04 scientist of NGRI Hyderabad have visited sagar area and they have collected about 200 samples of soil, water & gas along the road sections - Sagar - Garhakota - Rahatgarh -Sagar - Gourjhamar, Sagar- Rahatgarh - Meerkheri - Khurai, Jaisinagar, Bandri- Malthone (NH.12).

On the basis of the geochemical and stable isotopic studies of the natural petroleum gas, soil and water suggest that the samples of the Piparia-Bhutoli-Rahatgarh-Meerkheri of Sagar District containing 72% to 99% of methane,0.34% -0.742% of Helium, alongwith the oxygen, carbon dioxide and Nirogen gases.The stable isotopic δ C13 value in the range varying from -43.6 per mil. w.r.t PDB for methane -24.66 per mil. w.r.t PDB for ethane at Piparia –Bhutoli to-54.9 per mil. w.r.t PDB for methane and per mil. w.r.t PDB for at Rahatgarh are indicative of the THERMOGENIC origin. Table 4,5.

Table 4: The Absorbed Soil Hydrocarbon gas concentration in Sagar Distt.





   i C4

n C4




















       0.5      0.3


Standard Deviation

Soil Gas sample (%)









(After Prasanna et al 2010)

Table 5: Absorbed Hydrocarbon ration in soil samples in sagar District.


Thresold value

% of at incidence in survey at Sagar










C2 /∑ C3 +




(After Prasanna et al 2010)


In my opinion the natural helium and petroleum gas are containing the higher amount of methane (72-99 %), and remarkable content 0.34 % to 0.742 % of Helium and minor amount of oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon di oxide, it suggests that it must have been formed at higher temperature condition at deeper level in the Pre -Cambrian Vindhyan sedimentary basin. The reservoir must be lying below the ground at least 1000-2000 m or more depth. The present leakages of natural gas releasing through many hairline cracks/ fracture and feather joints in the sandstone, shales and limestone rocks of the Rewa and Bhander group rocks of the Vindhyan Super Group.

As per the geochemical and stable isotopic studies of Gas samples analysed at NGRI. find out the methane and ethane gas. The presence of ethane gas collected from the above-mentioned localities and the δ C13 stable isotopic value in the range of -24.9 per mil.w.r.t. per mil to - 26.9 per mil w.r.t. PDB. indicative of the thermogenic sources.

It is remarkable to note that the leakage of petroleum and Helium gas occurring in the different 16 tubewells are spread over more than 140 x 20 km area from Meerkheri- Rahatgarh - Pipariya- Bhutoli, Mahalwatra(Patharia) villages of Garhakota tahsil is about 40 km in the east of Sagar town and another tube well at Rahatgarh tube well site is about 40 km and meerkheri is about 60km west of Sagar and 70 km east of sagar is Mahalwara containing a large reservoir. Through the minor cracks/ fractures in the country rocks the natural petroleum and helium gas in the tube well is pouring in the Sagar. district. The Director General Hydrocarbon, Ministry Petroleum and Natural Gas, Newdelhi has assured for detailed Deep seismic survey in this hydrocarbon and helium rich zone will be done soon.


The author is thankful to the Director, NGRI, A.M. Dayal (Rtd). NGRI Hyderabad and the Director, KDMIPE, ONGC, Dehradun for the geochemical and stable isotopic analysis for the various samples. The author is highly thankful for the critical comments on this paper by Prof. R.P.Tiwari,Vice Chancellor, Dr.HSG University, Sagar ,Prof. S.P. Banerjee and Prof. K.S Pitre, ,Deptt. of Chemistry Dr.HSG University, Sagar, for the suggestions and Prof. P.S.Sakalni (Ex.) VC HNB Garhwal University Srinagar Garhwal for the critical comments on the manuscript.


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