Rol Wisniewski*1,2, T. Wilczynska2, G.V. Mishinsky3*, Alexer Yu. Didyk 3
1 Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland.
2Institute of Agricultural Food Biotechnology, 36 Rakowiecka, 02-532 Warsaw, Poland.
3Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, RF.
*Corresponding Author:Rol Wisniewski,Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland, Tel: +48 22 234 72 11; Fax: +48 22 234 72 11; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Citation: Rol Wisniewski,T Wilczynska, GV Mishinsky , Alexer Yu. Didyk(2023) The Pressure Oscillations Phenomenon Observed During Natural Cooling of Pressure Chamber Filled by Dense H2 Metallic Pd Specimen After Complex - Γ -E Irradiation Procedure. Nano Technol & Nano Sci J 5: 134.
Received: January 13, 2023; Accepted: January 20, 2023; Published: January 23, 2023.
Copyright: © 2023 Rol Wi?niewski, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, reproduction in any medium, provided the original author source are credited.
In the paper a new phenomenon of pressure oscillations in pressure chambers filled up by dense gaseous hydrogen with pure Pd specimen of macroscopic dimensions, after irradiation by gamma quanta electrons in specific doses - in a natural cooling state - is described.
Behavior of different samples of metals such as Al, Bi, V, Cu, Pd, Sn, Re, YMn2 alloy stainless steel in the shape of rods or wires, placed in molecular deuterium gas under high pressure, irradiated on by braking γ-rays of 10MeV [1-7] 23MeV[8-12] energy, have been studied. The element compositions of synthesized particles objects, as well as the surface structure of inner elements of the deuterium high pressure chamber (DHPC) were determined. Analogous investigations aimed to study the possibilities of nuclear reactions were performed using hydrogen high pressure chambers (HHPC) with Pd-rods inside  in the presence of hydrogen without any metallic samples in the chamber [14, 15] under irradiation by 10MeV braking γ-rays. The physical properties possible crystallographic structure of the graphite-like objects which were found in the PC filled up before gamma irradiation only by pure gaseous helium under pressure (1 – 3) kbar are described in [16, 17, 18]. The aim of this paper is the presentation of so called “Dubna oscillations phenomenon” of hydrogen pressure observed after irradiation of Pd-H system by braking γ-rays by electrons (of Emax = 10MeV). This phenomenon was observed first time in the authorspractice.
Technical procedures used by us high pressure apparatus has been widely described in all positions mentioned above. The goal of this paper is to present data not typical for our previously published experiments results. Namely observed first time the not typical dependence on time of oscillating pressure value in HPC, during it natural cooling procedure, just after finish of not typical for us irradiation procedure. Some experimental data are following. For experiment there was used dense hydrogen (initial pressure 1.2kbar, mean purity of 99.99 weight %) with palladium specimen of dimensions diameter of 3.8mm, length of 12,0mm high purity of 22ppm. This time we have decided to use at the beginning the typical braking gamma irradiation procedure, at time T = E5s after observation of its typical effects to apply electrons irradiation, by shorter time (T =4xE3s), noting higher temperature of pressure chamber (above 100oC). The observed pressure temperature changes on time are presented in Fig 3. One can see oscillating character of pressure changes during almost whole - long time – observation process. The MT25 electron accelerator, Fig.2, property of Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna, RF) was used with electron current 3-4µA. Used in our experiment a portable high-pressure chamber (one of first construction) is shown on Fig. 1. In further constructions a plastic o-ring sealing (5) were eliminated.
Figure 1: The schematic drawing of high-pressure apparatus (HPC). 1 – γ- quanta, electrons e-, other elementary particles flux, 2 – closing screw with hole, 3 – body reinforcing high pressure chamber, 4 - Cu0.98Be0.02 window- plug, 5 – high pressure seals, 6 – CuBe2 high pressure chamber, 7 – hydrogen (deuterium) under high pressure, 8 – brass sleeve, 9 – investigated Pd-rod, 10 – the distancing manganin sleeve, 11 – expected reaction product, 12 – brass screw, 13 – high pressure connecting capillary, 14 – high pressure valve, strain gauge pressure sensor gas filling inlet. The arrow shows the temperature measurement place.
Figure 2: Electron accelerator MT23 in Dubna Center for Nuclear Investigations attainable for us in any time for necessary exploitation time.
Placing pressure apparatus far from the accelerator laboratory, also to be sure of the absence of other radiation effects, we have decided to observe the character of pressure temperature dependencies at time in natural cooling the pressure chamber hoping to observe similar dependencies. Dependencies in reality proved to be different, namely –un-expected – in pressure dependences showing some kind of oscillations. Observed data, shown in Fig. 3 is for sure correct although is observed only one time. After approximately 1-hour time the HP valve was delicately opened controlled pressure decreasing took place. Disappearance of oscillation phenomenon at the ending procedure was noted. The time of cycle is rather long about 20 min.
During observed three cycles, no change in the average pressure was noted, the oscillation amplitude values were practically constant ~ about 120 bar against the background of the observed gradual decrease in temperature. The mechanism of the observed phenomena, in our opinion, is associated with the growing solubility of hydrogen in palladium microstructures during their local cooling. The pressure in the chamber decreases. Increasing the concentration of hydrogen in microstructures induces reactions of cold nuclear fusion low-energy transmutation of atoms of chemical elements [21, 22, 23]. The energy released in these processes heats up the microstructures of palladium hydrogen leaves them. The pressure in the chamber rises, low-energy reactions stop. The release of energy in the reactions decreases the palladium microstructures cool down again. The oscillations arerepeated.
This publication has particular meaning. Experiment is performed together with Professor A. Yu. Didyk († 13.04.2016) is devoted to His Memory. Publication has preliminary character. In correct political conditions, we do hope in the not too far future, that experiment will be repeated will then be given a possible interpretation. Preliminary we can supposing that some Low Energy Nuclear Reaction takes place. Is temperature decreasing important parameter for described here phenomenon, is the time of phenomenon short, long or very long, what about temperature changes inside the pressure chambersystem in dense hydrogen gas Pd specimen so on are fundamental problem for explanation. For sure, the added irradiation of –e related to the results of the “γ, H2, Pd” experiment described in  had basic meaning. Note: the "macro" nature of oscillations (big period time) may be the basis for the claim of the existence of new nuclear-crystalline interactions. The production of new elements in the palladium sample on the surfaces of internal structural elements is more advanced than in the case of irradiation only with gamma quanta . This topic will also be dealt with separately at a later date.
Figure 3: Oscillating character of hydrogen pressure dependence on time with monotonic, natural, temperature decreasing of pressure chamber (in approximation also of hydrogen Pd specimen). Arrow shows start time of delicate valve opening. On the right a view of the HP set.
Large thanks for all the friendly feelings of People to the contemporary – full of problems – World. Proposed name “Dubna Oscillations Phenomenon” presents our (RW TW) hot fruitful relation with this friendly City - where this observation among many, many others during long time of our international cooperation, took place. Authors are deeply satisfied of the opinion of Nanotechnologies Applications Journal about the worth of our work in this specific investigation presented by Camilla, Delaware US, EditorialAssistant.